Wednesday, May 28, 2008

Sańgīta-Gītikā [Song of Music- विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ] Mātrigītikāñjalih / H K Meher

Sańgīta-Gītikā (Song of Music)
Extracted from My Sanskrit Kāvya ‘Mātrigītikāñjalih’.

*
Lyrics,Tuning and English Translation
By : Dr. Harekrishna Meher
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
सङ्गीत-गीतिका [ 'मातृगीतिकाञ्जलि: '-काव्यतः]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
विधातुः प्राङ्गणं
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ।
प्रकृत्याः प्रतिकणं
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ॥ [ध्रुवम्]
*
अभिनव-सुकुमार-शिशु-मुखे क्रन्दनम्,
धप-धप-धप-धप-जन-हृदय-स्पन्दनम् ।
सपक्ष्म-प्रेक्षणं
भुवि जन्मत आविलयम्,
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विधातुः प्राङ्गणं
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ॥ [१]
*

सोऽहं सोऽहमिति श्वसनाकम्पनम्,
हहहा-हहहा-हा-हसितानन्दनम् ।
निसर्गोच्चारणं
प्रतिपन्न-जनी-विषयम्,
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विधातुः प्राङ्गणं
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ॥ [२]
*
प्रवहति कल-कलकल-धारं निर्झरम्,
वादयते पवनो वेणुं सुस्वरम् ।
सभङ्गी-सर्पणं
चल-सिन्धु-तरङ्ग-रयम्,
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
प्रकृत्याः प्रतिकणं
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ॥ [३]
*
पल्लविनी प्रफुल्ल-कुसुमा वल्लरी,
गति-मन्दं नृत्यति छन्दः-सुन्दरी ।
सुनिनदत्-कङ्कणं
स्फुट-भाव-कलाभिनयम्,
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
प्रकृत्याः प्रतिकणं
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ॥ [४]

*
गर्जति घड़-घड़-घनमाला-घर्षणम्,
प्रपतति टप-टप-टप-पृषतां वर्षणम् ।
ग्रहाणां विहरणं
विधि-दिष्ट-यथावलयम्,
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
प्रकृत्याः प्रतिकणं
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ॥ [५]
*
झिमि-झिमि-झिमि-झिङ्कारि-कृतं शिञ्जनम्,
कुरुते सम्भ्रमितो भ्रमरो गुञ्जनम् ।
समेषां लक्षणं
रस-रागभर-प्रणयम्,
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
प्रकृत्याः प्रतिकणं
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ॥ [६]
*
कूजति पिक-मुखो विहङ्गो मधु-गलम्,
स्वनति पुन-र्मतङ्गमादि-र्मङ्गलम् ।
सरिगमपधनि-नामधेया ये स्वराः,
व्याप्नुवन्ति भुवनं विश्वं भास्वराः ।
इदं वै घोषणं
ब्रह्मनाद-दिग्‌विजयम्,
नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विधातुः प्राङ्गणं

नियतं युत-ताल-लयम् ।
विततं सङ्गीतमयम् ॥ [७]
* *

(इयं गीतिका प्रायः कहरवा-ताल-मध्यलयेन परिवेषणीया ।)
- - - - - - - - - -

My English Translation :
Sańgīta-Gītikā
(Song of Music : Vidhātuh Prāńgaņam Vitatam Sańgītamayam
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
( The quintessence of this lyric shows that all creations of the Creator are replete with Music. Aspects of Nature such as brook, zephyr, ocean, creeper, cloud, rain, stars etc. and the creatures such as men, birds, animals, insects etc.- all have musical rhythm from their birth till death. Philosophical affinity is internally maintained with musical phenomena and All-pervadingness of Brahma-Nāda,
the Supreme Voice, is established here.)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Entire courtyard of the Creator
is permeated with Music.
Every part of Nature is endowed with regular
musical concord, ‘tāla’ and ‘laya’. (0)
*
The crying in the mouth of a newly-born baby,
the palpitations of hearts
and the wavering eyes with eyelashes,
all these continue from the very birth
till the end of life in the world.
Musical tune abides in every being. (1)
*
The wavering respiration regularly
expressing ‘so aham’(I am that Brahman),
the gaiety of free laughter
and the natural utterance
associated with every creature,
all these verily present a musical rhythm. (2)
*
The brook indeed flows
with murmuring sound.
The breeze plays flute with a sweet tone.
The pace of gestures in the waves
of unstable ocean is mellifluous
with regular concord. (3)
*
The creeper bearing soft foliage and flowers
appears as a sweet damsel
dancing in a delicate manner.
Her jingling bangles verily display
the gesticulation of distinct emotions and art.
Every aspect of Nature is musically rhythmic. (4)
*
Collision among the clusters of clouds roars.
The water-drops fall with ‘ţap’ ‘ţap’ sound.
Planets move in their orbits as destined to them.
All are really musical. (5)
*
The warbling of insects
forms the manner of musical anklet.
The gay black-bee rejoices in humming.
All these do indicate love
filled with emotions and graceful lilt.
All bear the charm of musical tune. (6)
*
Cuckoos with other birds
sweetly present their cooings.
Elephants and other animals
auspiciously express their voices.
Sa,re,ga,ma,pa,dha,ni – these seven ‘svaras’
with their unique brilliance
pervade the whole universe.
The eternal proclamation is that
Brahma-Nāda, the Supreme Divine Voice,
perpetually reigns everywhere.
In the creation of the Creator,
every aspect of Nature, every being
and every thing is permeated with Music. (7)

*
* *
[ Extracted from My Original Sanskrit Gīti-kāvya “Mātrigītikāñjalih”
Published by : Kalahandi Lekhak Kala Parishad,
Bhawanipatna-766001, Orissa, India.
In the Year 1997.]

***

Friday, May 23, 2008

Ritu-Samhāra : Spring / Oriya Version


Spring in Kālidāsa’s Ritu-Samhāra
Oriya Translation By : Dr. Harekrishna Meher
*
VASANTA-VARŅANAM
(Ritu-Samhāra-Kāvyam of Kālidāsa)
*
वसन्त-वर्णनम्
Original Sanskrit Verses :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
प्रफुल्ल-चूताङ्कुर-तीक्ष्ण-सायको
द्विरेफ-माला-विलसद्-धनुर्गुणः ।
मनांसि भेत्तुं सुरत-प्रसङ्गिनां
वसन्त-योद्धा समुपागतः प्रिये ! ॥ [ ६ / १ ]
*
द्रुमाः सपुष्पाः सलिलं सपद्मं
स्त्रियः सकामाः पवनः सुगन्धिः ।
सुखाः प्रदोषा दिवसाश्च रम्याः
सर्वं प्रिये ! चारुतरं वसन्ते ॥ [ ६ / २ ]
*
कुन्दैः सविभ्रम-वधू-हसितावदातै-
रुद्द्योतितान्युपवनानि मनोहराणि ।
चित्तं मुनेरपि हरन्ति निवृत्त-रागं
प्रागेव राग-मलिनानि मनांसि यूनाम् ॥ [ ६ / २५ ]
* * *


Original Sanskrit in Roman Script :
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Praphulla-cūtāńkura-tīkshna-sāyako
dvirepha-mālā-vilasad-dhanurgunah /
Manāmsi bhettum surata-prasańginām
vasanta-yoddhā samupāgatah priye // [ 6 / 1 ]
*
Drumāh sapushpāh salilam sapadmam
striyah sakāmāh pavanah sugandhih /
Sukhāh pradoshā divasāśca ramyāh
sarvam priye cārutaram vasante // [ 6 / 2 ]
*
Kundaih savibhrama-vadhū-hasitāvadātair-
udyotitānyupavanāni manoharāni /
Cittam munerapi haranti nivritta-rāgam
prāgeva rāga-malināni manāmsi yūnām // [ 6 / 25 ]
* * *



My Oriya Translation :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
बसन्त- बर्णना
------------------
देख गो प्रेयसि ! बिराजिला आसि
कि मनोहर,
य़ोद्धा रूपरे ऋतु बसन्त
कुसुमाकर।
करे धरिअछि से निजरि,
निशित शर य़े बिकच आम्र-मञ्जरी ।
धनु-गुण रूपे भ्रमर-पन्ति
य़ोचि रहिअछि तत्पर,
भेदिबार लागि रति-अनुरागी
कामी-जनङ्क अन्तर ॥
[६/१]
*
तरु-कुळ दिशे पुष्प-भारे रुचिर,
कमळे शोभित पुष्करिणीर नीर ।
कामिनीमाने त कामे अधीर,
सुरभिरे भरा बहे समीर ।
दिन कमनीय, सन्ध्या-समय
लागे आनन्दकर,
प्रिये ! बसन्त ऋतु आसन्ते
सबु सुन्दरतर ॥
[६/२]
*
उपबन-राजि बिळासिनी नारी-बृन्दर,
मधु हास परि धबळ कुन्द-
कुसुमरे भरा सुन्दर ।
तरुण-गणर अनुरागी मन
हरण करे से प्रथमरे,
मुनिमानङ्क बिरागी मन बि
परे हरिनिए नरमरे ॥
[६/२५]
* * *

Roman Transliteration of My Oriya Version :
BASANTA-BARŅANĀ

(Ritu-Samhāra Kāvya)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dekha go Preyasi ! birājilā āsi
ki manohara /
Yoddhā rūpare Rutu Basanta
kusumākara //
Kare dhari achi se nijari /
Niśita śara ye bikaca āmra-mañjarī //
Dhanu-guņa rūpe bhramara-panti
yoci rahi achi tatpara /
Bhedibāra lāgi rati-anurāgī
Kāmī-janańka antara //
[6/1]
*
Taru-kuļa diśe pushpa-bhāre rucira /
Kamaļe śobhita pushkariņīra nīra //
Kāminī-māne ta kāme adhīra /
Surabhire bharā bahe samīra //
Dina kamanīya, sandhyā-samaya
lāge ānandakara /
Priye ! basanta rutu āsante
sabu sundaratara //
[6/2]
*
Upabana-rāji biļāsinī nārī-brundara /
Madhu hāsa pari dhabaļa kunda-
kusumare bharā sundara //
Taruņa-gaņara anurāgī mana
haraņa kare se prathamare /
Muni-mānańka birāgī mana bi
pare hari nie naramare //
[6/25]
* * *
For Reference, please see :
* * * * *

Sunday, May 18, 2008

Gīta-Govinda: First Śloka (English-Hindi-Oriya Versions): Dr.Harekrishna Meher

Gīta-Govinda of  Poet Jayadeva 
(The Song of Cowherd Krishna)
*
The First Verse :
From Original Sanskrit, 
Translated into English, Hindi and Oriya Languages
By : Dr. Harekrishna Meher
---------------------------------------------------------------------
महाकवि-जयदेव-कृतं गीत-गोविन्दम्
प्रथम- श्लोकः
अंग्रेजी- हिन्दी- ओड़िआ अनुवाद : डा. हरेकृष्ण मेहेर
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Original Sanskrit in Devanagari script :
*
मेघै-र्मेदुरमम्बरं वन-भुवः श्यामास्तमाल-द्रुमैर्
नक्तं भीरुरयं त्वमेव तदिमं राधे ! गृहं प्रापय ।
इत्थं नन्द-निदेशतश्चलितयोः प्रत्यध्व-कुञ्ज-द्रुमं
राधा-माधवयो-र्जयन्ति यमुना-कूले रहः केलयः ॥ 
* * *
(Transliteration of Sanskrit in Roman Script) :
*
Meghair meduramambaram vana-bhuvah śyāmāstamāla-drumair
Naktam bhīrurayam tvameva tadimam Rādhe ! griham prāpaya /
Ittham Nanda-nideśataścalitayoh pratyadhva-kuñja-drumam
Rādhā-Mādhavayor jayanti yamunā-kūle rahah kelayah // 
* * *
My English Version :
*
‘The sky is encompassed by clouds.
With the hue of Tamāla trees
darksome appear the sites of woods.
This dear Kāhnā
feels very timid at night.
O Rādhā ! You therefore please
accompany him to reach home aright.’
Thus by the words of King Nanda,
stepped ahead both Rādhā and Mādhava
towards the tree of bowers on the way.
Glory to their plays of love, secret and gay,
on the bank of river Yamunā.

* * *
My Hindi Version :
--------------------------------------
'बादल छाए चहुँदिशा से
अम्बर में मतवाले,
तमाल तरुओं से ये वनस्थल
दीख रहे हैं काले ।
रात- अन्धेरे में डरता है
यह अकेला काह्ना,
अरी राधिके ! तुम ही इसको
लेकर घर पहुँचाना ।'
नन्दराज की इन बातों से
राह कुञ्ज- तरु की ओर,
चले संग-संग राधा-माधव
दोनों प्रीति- विभोर ।
जय हो उनकी रची गयीं जो सारी,
युगल मधुर एकान्त केलियाँ
यमुना- तट पर प्यारी ॥
* *
My Oriya Version :
------------------------------------------
        'अम्बुद-राजि आबोरि देइछि अम्बर,
दिशुछि तमाळ तरु-माळे भरा
बन-भूइँ श्याम रङ्गर ।
रजनी-काळे ए काह्नु एका,
भारि भय करे आगो राधिका !
एथिपाइँ तुमे सङ्गे य़ाइ,
निजे हिँ एहाकु सदनरे दिअ
पहञ्चाइ ।'
नन्द-बदनुँ     एइ गिर शुणि
अनुरागे,
आगेइले राधा- माधब य़ुगळ
पथ निकुञ्ज- तरु दिगे ।
गोपन सकळ शृङ्गार-केळि
बेनिङ्कर,
बिजयाङ्कित बिराजे बिजने
य़मुनार तीरे निरन्तर॥
* * *
Transliteration of Oriya in Roman Script :
---------------------------------------------
'Ambuda-rāji ābori deichi ambara;
Diśuchi tamāļa- taru-māļe bharā
bana-bhūin śyāma rańgara.
Rajanī-kāļe e Kānhu ekā,
Bhāri bhaya kare Āgo Rādhikā !
Ethipāin tume sańge jāi,
Nije hin ehāku sadanare dia
pahañcāi.'
Nanda-badanu   ei gira śuņi
anurāge,
Āgeile Rādhā- Mādhaba jugaļa
patha nikuñja- taru dige.
Gopana sakaļa śruńgāra-keļi
benińkara,
Bijayāńkita birāje bijane
Yamunāra tīre nirantara.
*
[Gita-Govinda. 1/1]
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
*
Also Please see in PDF :
*
* * * * *

Monday, May 12, 2008

'Sanskriti-Gitika' (संस्कृति-गीतिका - विजयतेतराम् ओंकार-भारती)/Dr.Harekrishna Meher

My Original Sanskrit Song with English Translation :    
Sanskriti-Gītikā  (Song of Culture) 
Lyrics and Tuning By : Dr. Harekrishna Meher.
[From My Sanskrit Gīti-Kāvya ‘Pushpāñjali-Vicitrā’]   

*
Original Sanskrit Song :   
संस्कृति-गीतिका
गीत एवं स्वर-रचना : डा. हरेकृष्ण मेहेर
********************************
विजयतेतराम् ‚ॐकार-भारती, संस्कार-भारती ।
शुचि-वर्णम्, अन्तःकरणम्,
भुवि भव्या प्रतिभा विभास्वती ।
विजयतेतराम् ‚ॐकार-भारती, संस्कार-भारती ॥ (ध्रुवम्)
*
गुण-समुज्ज्वला सौम्या सुजला भारत-जननी ;
वैभव-पूर्णा मधुराभरणा भुवन-पावनी ।
सुनिर्मला, रम्योर्मि-चला,
इह गङ्गा यमुना सरस्वती ।
विजयतेतराम् ‚ॐकार-भारती, संस्कार-भारती ॥ (१)
*
विश्व-विश्रुता श्रुतिरनवद्या विद्या सकला ;
चर्चित-विबुधा ललिता विविधा प्रिय-चारु-कला ।
विराजते, निखिल-भारते,
परमार्या परम्परा महती ।
विजयतेतराम् ‚ॐकार-भारती, संस्कार-भारती ॥ (२)
*
सङ्गीत-सुधा सङ्गत-रङ्गा जन-मनोहरा ;
प्रसरति नित्यं नृत्य-माधुरी रस-राग-भरा ।
चित्र-कला, सुपवित्र-फला,
प्रति-हृदयं प्रमुदं वितन्वती ।
विजयतेतराम् ‚ॐकार-भारती, संस्कार-भारती ॥ (३)
*
शिव-सङ्कलपा शिल्प-चातुरी वाङ्‍मयाङ्किता ;
स्थापत्य-दिशा मन्दिर-माला समभिनन्दिता ।
सुरञ्जिनी, ताप-भञ्जिनी,
चिर-सुभगा शुभ-कीर्त्ति-व्रतती ।
विजयतेतराम् ‚ॐकार-भारती, संस्कार-भारती ॥ (४)
*
जीवन-धारा विगत-विकारा वहतु सौख्यदा ;
मानवताया ज्योति-र्दिव्यं लसतु सर्वदा ।
जागरणे, कर्माचरणे,
इह सुजनो महतां तपोव्रती ।
विजयतेतराम् ‚ॐकार-भारती, संस्कार-भारती ॥ (५)
*
संहति-सूत्रा भारत-पुत्रा मैत्री-भरणे ;
शान्ति-भावना धार्या नियतं पर्यावरणे ।
मातृ-पदे, मङ्गलास्पदे,
प्रणति-र्नो नितरां भक्तिमती ।
विजयतेतराम् ‚ॐकार-भारती, संस्कार-भारती ॥ (६) 

 * *    
(इयं गीतिका कहरवा-ताल-मध्यलयेन परिवेषणीया ।)

= = = = = = = = = = = 


Original Sanskrit in Roman Script :
Sanskriti-Gītikā
(Song of Culture)
[ From My Sanskrit Gīti-Kāvya ‘Pushpāñjali-Vicitrā’ ]    
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = 

Vijayatetarām OM-kāra-Bhāratī, Samskāra-Bhāratī.
Śuci-varņam, Antah-karaņam,
Bhuvi bhavyā pratibhā vibhāsvatī /
Vijayatetarām OM-kāra-Bharatī, Samskāra-Bhāratī // (0)
*
Guņa-samujjvalā saumyā sujalā Bhārata-jananī,
Vaibhava-pūrņā madhurābharaņā bhuvana-pāvanī.
Sunirmalā, Ramyormi-calā,
Iha Gańgā Yamunā Sarasvatī /
Vijayatetarām OM-kāra-Bhāratī, Samskāra-Bhāratī // (1)
*
Viśva-viśrutā śrutiranavadyā vidyā sakalā,
Carcita-vibudhā lalitā vividhā priya-cāru-kalā.
Virājate, Nikhila-Bhārate,
Paramāryā paramparā mahatī /
Vijayatetarām OM-kāra-Bhāratī, Samskāra-Bhāratī // (2)
*
Sańgīta-sudhā sańgata-rańgā jana-manoharā,
Prasarati nityam nritya-mādhurī rasa-rāga-bharā.
Citra-kalā, Supavitra-phalā,
Prati-hridayam pramudam vitanvatī /
Vijayatetarām OM-kāra-Bhāratī, Samskāra-Bhāratī // (3)
*
Śiva-sańkalpā śilpa-cāturī vańmayāńkitā,
Sthāpatya-diśā mandira-mālā samabhinanditā.
Surañjinī, Tāpa-bhañjinī,
Cira-subhagā śubha-kīrtti-vratatī/
Vijayatetarām OM-kāra-Bhāratī, Samskāra-Bhāratī // (4)
*
Jīvana-dhārā vigata-vikārā vahatu saukhyadā,
Mānavatāyā jyotir divyam lasatu sarvadā.
Jāgaraņe, Karmācaraņe,
Bhavatu jano mahatām tapo-vratī /
Vijayatetarām OM-kāra-Bhāratī, Samskāra-Bhāratī // (5)
*
Samhati-sūtrā Bhārata-putrā maitrī-bharaņe,
Sānti-bhāvanā dhāryā niyatam paryāvaraņe.
Mātri-pade, Mańgalāspade,
Praņatir no nitarām bhaktimatī /
Vijayatetarām OM-kāra-Bhāratī, Samskāra-Bhāratī // (6)


* * * * * * *

My English Translation :
Sanskriti-Gītikā (The Song of Culture)
[From My Sanskrit Gīti-Kāvya ‘Pushpāñjali-Vicitrā’]   
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 

Glory to the Voice of ‘OM’ chanting.
Glory to the sacred Speech that purifies every heart.
Glory to the inner sense where word of sanctity emerges.
Glory to the genius that forms illustrious
and marvellous phenomenon in this world. (0)
*
The beauteous Mother India is effulgent with virtues
and provides us with ample water-resources.
She is rich with natural wealth,
is endowed with comely gems and ornaments,
and is sanctifier of the mundane regions.
Here flow the rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati
that are pellucid, pure and dancing with charming waves. (1)
*
Renowned in this world are all the Vedic studies
and sacred learnings of this country.
Various scriptures bear the deliberations of the wise.
Graceful are the fine arts endearing to all.
In the entire land of India, here reigns
the great vast tradition of the adorable seers. (2)
*
The nectar of music presented in the stages
enchants the minds of the people.
The sweetness of dances filled with sentiments
and melodious tunes spreads excellence.
The art of paintings and weaving designs
infuses holiness and goodness;
further enhances exhilaration in every heart. (3)
*
The skill of sculpture with auspicious resolve
is imprinted in letters of the celebrated personalities.
In view of architecture, the temples are
beautifully designed and well appreciated by all.
The creeper of auspicious fame, ever charming
and pleasing to the minds discards all the distress. (4)
*
May the stream of life, free from pollution,
flow here bestowing happiness to all.
May the light of humanitarianism
be ever illuminating with divinity.
In social awakening and performing duties,
may the people adhere to sincerity
practicing penance of the great souls. (5)
*
All the offspring of the Mother India are initiated
with the incantations of unity and integration,
while nourishing friendship among themselves.
The thoughts of peace should be nurtured
for ever in conducive environments.
At the feet of the Revered Mother
that form the abode of all auspiciousness,
we extend our salutations with heartiest devotion.
Glory and victory to the Voice of ‘Om’
and the Speech that sanctifies everyone. (6)

* * *

( Sanskrit Song “Sanskriti-Gitika” 'Vijayatetaram Omkara Bharati ' 
Telecast on Local TV Channel on 16.1.2004 on the occasion of 
Multilingual Kavi Sammelan, Kalahandi Utsav– 2004, held at Bhawanipatna 
under the auspices of District Council of Culture, Kalahandi.)
* * * 
(Published in 'Sangeet' June 1999, Sangeet Karyalaya, Uttar Pradesh/ 
Revised Song published in 'Nishan', Kalahandi Utsav-2004, Bhawanipatna, Orissa)
* * * * *


Wednesday, May 7, 2008

CONCEPT OF GĪTI AND MĀTRIGĪTIKĀÑJALI-KĀVYA/Prof. Abhiraja Rajendra Mishra

CONCEPT OF GĪTI AND MĀTRIGĪTIKĀÑJALI- KĀVYA :
AN OBSERVATION
By : Prof. Dr. Abhiraja Rajendra Mishra   
Ex-Vice Chancellor,
Sampurnananda Sanskrit University, Varanasi. 


= = = = = = = = = = = = =  
(The present scholarly article of Prof. Dr. Mishra reflects valuable views on 
Sanskrit Gīti-kāvya “Mātrigītikāñjalih” written by Harekrishna Meher 
and here it is published with kind permission of the author.
Brief bio-data of Prof. Mishra available at the end of this article. )  
= = = = = = = = = = = = =  

Very opulent appears the Modern Sanskrit Kāvya Literature. Therein 'Gītikā' (lyric or song) like vernal beauty in sylvan riches bears some special attraction. How is this ? If here such  inquisitiveness arises, then comes up the solution with ancient heritage.

“Gītishu sāmākhyā” (‘Sāma’ is a name of Gīti) – this is cited by Achārya Rājaśekhara. The same meaning is expressed by the word ‘sāma’ used in the Sāmaveda. That is ‘sāma’ which pleases the deities with its rhythmic sweetness (sāmayati toshayati laya-mādhuryeņa devān iti sāma). Thus the word ‘sāma’ appears as a synonym of Gīti. So this can be asserted that being synonymous with ‘sāma’, the concept of ‘Gīti’ is very ancient.

Āchārya Bharata, Bhāmaha, Udbhata, Mammata and others have defined ‘kāvya-śāstra’, but have not formulated any special kind of kāvya called ‘gīta’ (lyric or song). However, some defining features are found in opinions of some great poets of Sanskrit. Amongst them, first comes Kālidāsa who has described the specialities of ‘gīti’ in some other context in the Uttara-bhāga of his Meghadūta-Kāvya. In the pen of this great poet, Yaksha’s wife, pining through separation from her husband, places a lute on her lap having dirty clothes and desires to sing some ‘geya’ in his name. Of what kind is this ‘geya’ ? The verse may be observed : 


“ Utsańge vā malina-vasane saumya ! nikshipya vīņām
mad-gotrāńkam virachita-padam geyam udgātukāmā /” 


In this śloka, Kālidāsa has enunciated two specialities of ‘geya’ (‘gīta’ or ‘gīti’) intended by himself. One is ‘gotrāńkatva’ and the other is ‘virachita-padatva’. From Kālidāsa’s view-point, presence of these two specialities is essential in ‘gīti’.

‘Gotra’ means ‘utterance of name’. ‘Ańka’ means ‘sign’ or ‘a distinct mark’. ‘Gotrāńka’ is that where remains the special sign of utterance of name. The sense of ‘gotrāńka’ is ‘gotrāńkatva’. Whatever Yaksha’s wife endeavours to sing, therein lies some censure to her loving husband. In the midst of the song, several words of address (sambodhana) for her husband have been used. This ‘gotrāńkatva’ is generally not seen in the verses such as ‘muktaka’, ‘yugmaka’, ‘sandānitaka’, ‘kalāpaka’ and ‘kulaka’, where simple descriptions are made. But in a lyrical composition, ‘gotrāńkatva’ is very essential and inevitable. It is difficult to say whether the message sent by Yaksha to his separated wife contains the form of ‘gīti’; but in his message, ‘gotrāńkatva’ is obviously observed, as in the following lines :  

“Avyāpannah kuśalam abale ! prichchhati tvām viyuktah /”  
(O Weak helpless one ! Separated from you, your companion Yaksha, however alive till now, asks about your well-being.) 

“Mā kaulīnād asita-nayane ! mayyaviśvāsinī bhūh /”  

( O Blue-eyed lady ! Please do not lose trust in me through false rumours.)  

“Tat kalyāņi ! tvam api nitarām mā gamah kātaratvam /”
( O Blessed one ! You also must not feel distressed and afraid.)

In the song sung by Queen Hamsapadikā in Śākuntalam drama (5/1), ‘gotrāńkatva’ is clearly seen as ‘anyāpadeśa’. The song is


“Abhinava-madhu-lolupas tvam
tathā parichumbya chūta-mañjarīm /
Kamala-vasati-mātra-nirvrito
madhukara ! vismrito’syenām katham //” 

(O Drone ! How is it that hankering for new new honey and after kissing the mango-blossom, you now seem to be satisfied with a simple stay in the lotus ? How did you forget the mango-blossom ? )

Really ‘gotrāńkatva’ is not a mere utterance of name of the desired hero or heroine etc. Also it forms a mention of personal feeling. In songs, expression whatever made by a beloved lady to her lover or by a lover to his beloved is not a mere statement. Therein lies some inner heart-touching speakable thing like untold before, which can be comprehended by person concerned. For instance, in Rāmāyaņa, the esteemed Sītā has sent message for Rāma in the mouth of Hanuman; also in Śrīmad-Bhāgavata, King Bhīshmaka’s daughter princess Rukmiņī has given message in the mouth of a Brahmin to Lord Krishna, the King of Dvārakā. By properly observing such message, so heart-touching, replete with compassion, filled with sentiment and opener of secret, the eyes of a connoisseur get suffused with constant tear-drops due to excessively emerging emotions.

This is the defining concept of ‘Gīti’. Words simply bearing descriptions cannot be named ‘Gīti’. Indeed ‘Gīti’ is such an expression wherein lies some heart-felt message and which is able to forcefully set other knowables aside. All these things depend on the poetic genius. If ‘Gīti’ is unable to express such emotions, it has no fault. Verily fault lies in the poetic genius. As Dhvanikāra says : “Na kāvyartha-virāmo’sti yadi syāt pratibhā guņah” (If genius is really a merit or excellence, then meaning of kāvya does not have any stop.)

Word-arrangement of ‘Gīti’ is more attractive than that of other literary compositions. Because, other compositions are mere descriptions of stories etc. But ‘Gīti’ is such an exceptional phenomenon that contains abundance of emotional feelings. Therefore ‘Virachita-padatva’ is a salient speciality of ‘Gīti’. A ‘Gīti’ where words are specially composed is ‘Virachita-pada’ and the sense of ‘Virachita-pada’ is ‘Virachita-padatva’. In Gīti, how are the words composed ? Answer is in the following discussion.

Before drawing a desired portrait, a painter holds his mental state just like a Yogī; then gradually draws lines, depicts thick and thin limbs, and by brushing various colours creates a definite form (1). By all means, an author of Gīti resorting to his ‘bhāvayitrī pratibhā’ composes a song or lyric by arrangement of word-meanings that are capable of arousing the exact emotional feelings and thus earns eternal celebrity. Such ‘Virachita-padatva’ can be found in the love-letter of Śakuntalā meant for King Dushyanta in Abhijñāna-Śākuntalam drama (3/14) as follows : 


“Tava na jāne hridayam mama punah
kāmo divāpi rātrāvapi /
Nirghriņa ! tapati baliyas tvayi
vritta-manorathāyā ańgāni //" 

( O Ruthless One ! I do not know how your heart is; but the powerful Cupid heats my limbs day and night. My yearning is engrossed in you.)

In this illustration, all the specialities of Gīti intended by poet Kālidāsa are attained simultaneously. With the address (gotrāńka) ‘Nirghriņa’ (O Ruthless One ! ), Śakuntalā through ‘Virachita-pada’ has revealed distress of her heart. In this Gīti, each word has been specifically composed. Each word cannot change its place in front or back, and also cannot be replaced by any other word. In this Gīti, each word expresses such an internally suggested meaning that is very profound and can be experienced by connoisseurs only. Here long discussion in this regard is not necessary (2).

In Śākuntalam drama (Act-V), in the context of Queen Hamsapadikā’s song, Kālidāsa has evinced another speciality of ‘Gīti’ in the mouth of King Dushyanta. After listening the song, the King says :
“Aho ! Rāga-parivāhinī Gītih.” ( Oh ! Gīti has the overflow of Rāga.)
Then his friend Vidūshaka asks :
“Kim tāvat gītyā avagato’ksharārthah ?”
( Did you comprehend the meaning of wordings of the song ?)

These two lines, in any manner, are able to express the defining concept of Gīti. Here it is said that Gīti has the pervasion of Rāga, the musical mode. In accordance with time, place and person, Gīti can be sung with a particular Rāga. One more speciality is that the meaning of Gīti, like female bosoms, cannot be seen or be perceptible by all. It has the sense internally hidden.

Gīti is set with a particular musical mode (Rāga). In this respect, Āchārya Abhinavagupta has given proofs in his work “Abhinava-Bhāratī ”(Chapter-IV). The lines are as follows :
“Rāghavavijaya-Mārīchavadhādikam Rāga-kāvyam. Tathā hi Rāghavavijayasya hi dhakka-rāgeņa eva vichitra-varņanīyatvena nirvāhah. Mārīcha-vadhasya kakubha-grāma-rāgeņaiva. Ata eva rāga-kāvyani uchyanta etāni.”
(Rāghavavijaya and Mārīchavadha etc. are known as rāga-kāvyas. Rāghavavijaya can be presented with marvellous designs in dhakka-rāga. Mārīchavadha-kāvya can be composed with kakubha-grāma-rāga. For this reason, all these are regarded as rāga-kāvyas.)

In the prologue of Śākuntalam drama, Kālidāsa affirms Gīti’s ‘hāritva’ (attractiveness) and ‘rāgāśrayatva’
(the sense of being resorted to a musical mode) in his statement: "Tavāsmi 
gīta-rāgeņa hāriņā prasabham hritah” (I have been perforce attracted by your ravishing melodious song set with rāga). From this matter, it can be asserted that the life-like two attributes of Gīti are the capability to attract the mental state of listeners and the pervadingness with rāga (3).

What is said to be ‘Gīti’ is also called ‘Gīta’ and ‘Gāna’. Amarakosha declares : “Gītam gānam ime same”. According to Halāyudha : “Gītam gānam iti proktam”. The ‘Geya’ desired by Kālidāsa is also a synonym of ‘Gīta’ and ‘Gāna’. There is no scope of doubt in this matter.

After the great poet Kālidāsa, the special characteristics of Gīti have been elucidated in detail by Śūdraka, the author of the drama ‘Mrichchhakaţikam’. In Act-III of this drama, the hero Chārudatta contextually says :  

“Sādhu gītam Rebhilena.  
‘Raktam cha nāma madhuram cha samam sphutam cha
bhāvānvitam cha lalitam cha manoharam cha /
Kim vā prasasta-vachanair bahubhir maduktair
antarhitā yadi bhaved vaniteti manye’ // ”

(Master Rebhila has sung the song very wonderfully. Really this song was impassioned or replete with rāga, was sweet, well-balanced, distinct, full of emotions, graceful and charming to the mind. What can be praised more with my words ? Methinks, it was some female disguised as male Rebhila that was singing.)

From the above-stated verse, it is found that according to Śūdraka, a song (‘Gīti’ or ‘Gīta’) is overwhelmingly endowed with a rāga, is filled with sweetness, is smooth, well-expressed, full of emotions, graceful and attractive to the mind.

Similarities can be observed in the opinions of the two great poets Kālidāsa and Śūdraka regarding ‘Gīti’. Kālidāsa says : ‘Rāga-parivāhinī Gītih’ (Gīti has the overflow of of rāga) and Śūdraka opines : ‘Raktam Gītam’ (Song is set with rāga). Kālidāsa shows ‘attractiveness’ (hāritva) of Gīti in his statement ‘Gīta-rāgena hārina’, while Śūdraka says : ‘Manoharam Gītam’ (Song is attractive to the mind).


In Kālidāsa’s opinion, Gīti is composed with some special words (Virachita-pada), while Śūdraka describes it as full of emotions (Bhāvānvita). With the words ‘madhura’ (sweet), ‘lalita’ (graceful), ‘sama’ (balanced) and ‘sphuta’ (distinct), though Śūdraka wants to explain some thing more, yet all these attributes such as sweetness etc. merge within the very specialities of Gīti expounded by Kālidāsa.

Sprung from Sāmaveda-Gomukha, the Gīti-Mandākinī, sanctifying the Sanskrit literature that bears the form of Motherland India, has been flowing continuously till now. On one side,Gīti has same age with Sāma. On the other, the concept of Gīti enumerated in detail by Kālidāsa with the name of ‘Gīta’ (Tavāsmi gīta-rāgeņa), ‘Gīti’ (Aho rāga-parivāhinī Gītih) and ‘Geya’ (Geyam udgātukāmā), and elucidated thereafter by Śūdraka became exposition of rāga-kāvya. Achārya Abhinavagupta has given two examples of rāga-kāvyas that are Rāghava-vijaya and Mārīcha-vadha. From the above discussion, it can be proved that rāga-kāvya existed before tenth century A.D.

The most ancient rāga-kāvya presently available is ‘Gīta-Govindam’ of poet Jayadeva. Tradition of rāga-kāvya emerged from this and many literary works have been written thereafter. For instance, ‘Gīta-Girīśam’ of Śrīrāma Bhaţţa, ‘Krishna-Gītam’ of Somanātha, ‘Gīta-Gaurīpati-Kāvyam’ of Bhānudatta, ‘Sańgīta-Raghunandanam’ of Mahārāja Viśvanātha Simha, ‘Gīta-Gańgādharam’ of Kalyāņa Kavi, ‘Gīta-Pītavasanam’ of Śyāmarāma and ‘Pārvatī-Gītam’ of Jayanārāyaņa (4). ‘Dhīvara-Gītam’ of Radhāvallabha Tripāthy and ‘Gīta-Bhāratam’ of Abhirāj Rājendra Mishra – these two books of twentieth century also enrich that tradition.

Some ignorant people opine that Sanskrit Yuga prevails upto Paņđitarāja Jagannātha. But in fact, this is not so. Many changes have come in administration. Age has changed. Also changed have been the values of life. But till now, unchanged is Sanskrit. The same grammar, the same language-form, the same metre-arrangement, the same tradition of scriptures and philosophies, the same composition of kāvya that springs from poetic genius – all are as before. Till now Sanskrit kāvya endowed with ‘guņa’, ‘rasa’ and ‘vritti’ exists alive. Today also here exist poets bearing the self-spirit and dignity of Kālidāsian genius. In India, today also exist Sanskrit poets in whom lies the poetic confidence of Bhāsa, Bhavabhūti, Māgha, Śrīharsha, Bānabhatta, Jayadeva and others.

In twentieth century, Sanskrit has gained all-round prosperity in comparison to other Indian languages. Numerous mahākāvyas, khaņđa-kāvyas, stories, novels and dramas etc. are being regularly composed in Sanskrit. In this literature, tradition of lyric poem is extremely rich. Though all the present lyricists have not engaged themselves in composing rāga-kāvyas, yet it must be admitted that Sanskrit poetry has become very popular only through lyric tradition. Nowadays through televisions and radios, Sanskrit poems are established in the society, and are intelligible and congratulated by all.

Among the modern Sanskrit lyricists, Harekrishna Meher has indeed earned much fame by virtue of his poetic merit. From his identity, it is known that he has authored several books in Sanskrit, English, Hindi, Oriya and Kośali languages. His genius is equally adept in churning critical scriptures, also in composing the flower-like delicate kāvyas. ‘Mātrigītikāñjalih’ (5) is one of the Sanskrit works of this brilliant poet of Orissa. This gīti-kāvya comprises twenty-five lyrics that are very graceful and based on various topics. Mind of the connoisseur gets extremely exhilarated with sentiments by reading these lyrics again and again. In these lyrics, various matters such as worship to Motherland India, universal well-being, eternal glory and greatness of woman, recognisation of Self, adoration to God Tryambaka, prayer to Gāyatrī, appreciation to poets and literary artistes, honour of love, praise of childhood, ten incarnations of God and the like have been delineated.

Composed with very simple lucid words capable of expressing exact emotions, these lyrics are really endowed with the above-mentioned significant specialities of Gīti, that are ‘Geyatva’, ‘Manohāritva’, ‘Lālitya’ and ‘Bhāvānvitatva’. The noble-minded connoisseurs are real judges in this regard. Almost all the lyrics are marked with original thinkings.

Displaying the beauty of life and honouring noble feelings in all the beings, the poet in his ‘Jīvana-Gītikā’ speaks thus : 


Paśya madhumayam Viśvamīśvaram
prītim śāntim hridi sarveshām ,
Sādhaya sāram Paropakāram
labhasva kīrttim saphala-suveshām.
Mānavatāyāh kalaya mahattvam
Chirantanam parichintaya tattvam
Sakalātmani sadbhāvanam /
Jīvanam sundaram, Sundaram tanu-tapovanam //” 

(Behold the universe and the Almighty God nectareous. Behold love and peace in the hearts of all. Render the best well-being to others. Acquire glory resplendent with a fair form. Count the greatness of humanism. Deliberate over the eternal phenomenon that forms noble feeling in all the selves. Life is beautiful. Beautiful is the penance-grove of physical body.)

Arrangement of delicate and comely words in the lyrics forcibly attracts the mind. For example, in ‘Vibhu-Gītikā’, the following lines :  


“Prakriti-Purushayoh svayamvare,
Bhāva-vimugdhe kalevare ;
Sarasa-sumadhure priyādhare,
Sneha-vigalite netra-jhare ;
Dīvyati bhavato dravyatvam,
Dravyatvam, Divyatvam /
Sarvasmin He Svāmin !
Tvamasi Tvamasi Tvamasi Tvam //”

(In the wedding assembly of Prakriti and Purusha, in the body overwhelmed with attractive emotions, in the juicy lips of beloved spouse and in the flow of the eyes drippling with affections, scintillates thy fusion, the fusion, the divinity. O Lord ! in all Thou art, Thou art, Thou art.)

The greatness of Kāla-Purusha, the controller of all the universe, is depicted in ‘Samaya-Gītikā’. Some lines are as follows : 


“Kvachidutkarsham kvachidapakarsham
chitram rachayati bhavataś chakram;
Abalam sabalam śushkam sajalam
svairam kurute saralam vakram.
Alańghanīyo naya-kramaste /
Samaya ! namaste, Samaya ! namaste //”

(The wheel of thine wonderfully generates somewhere prosperity and somewhere degradation. It can easily transform a powerless into a powerful one, a dry into a watery, and a straight into a curve. The series of thy canon is impregnable. O Time ! Salutations to thee; Salutations to thee.)

The poet proclaims that all the universe is eternally pervaded with music. In the beginning of ‘Sańgīta-Gītikā’, he declares : 


“Vidhātuh prāńgaņam
vitatam sańgītamayam,
Prakrityāh prati-kaņam
niyatam yuta-tāla-layam /
Vitatam sańgītamayam //”

(Entire courtyard, all the creation of the Creator is permeated with music. Every aspect of Nature is endowed with regular musical rhythm and concord.)

In ‘Navavarsha-Gītikā’, New Year’s auspiciousness, happiness, good health and all-round well-being are wished for all. For example, 


“ Hridaya-mandire prema-jyotir vīrājatām,
Mano’ravindam vindatu vimalam sundaratām.
Suchintanam, Chirantanam,
Haratu vishāda-vimarsham /
Śubham bhavatu nava-varsham /
Saukhyamayam, Nirāmayam,
Vitaratu paramam harsham //”   

(May the light of love be brilliantly enkindled in the temple of hearts. May the lucid lotus of mind bear excellent comeliness. May noble thoughts perpetually eradicate all dejections and depressions. May the New Year be auspicious. May it confer on all supreme bliss with happiness and diseaselessness.) 

In
‘Deśa-Gītikā’, the poet offers salutations to the Motherland India. Beauty of Nature designed with the grace of diction can be observed in the following lines : 

“Ambudhi-vidhauta-sumadhura-charaņa-vilāsā,
Gańgā-salile salīla-sulalita-hāsā.
Kusumārāme rasabhara-surabhi-samīrā,
Taruvara-puñje rañjita-mañju-śarīrā.
Vihańga-tāne Mańgala-gāne
Śyāmala-śasyā vijayate /
Bhārata-mātā parama-namasyā vijayate /
Svatantratāyā Raņa-vīrāņām
Saphala-tapasyā vijayate //”

(Our Motherland has the brilliance of beauteous feet washed by oceans. She has graceful smilings with gestures in the water of Gańgā. She bears flavorous and fragrant zephyr in the flower-gardens. In the clusters of trees, she contains colourful and comely figures. Having sweet cooings of birds forming auspicious songs, she is prosperous with green crops. Victory to our Motherland Bhārata, greatly adorable by us. Victory to the prolific penance of the warriors who fought and achieved freedom of our country.)

Thus some lines expressive of heartiest sweet feelings were presented above from Mātrigītikāñjali-kāvya. All other lyrics should be enjoyed by the wise readers. Of these lovely lyrics, one feature which impresses more is the proper usage of rules of grammar. For the learned litterateurs of Sanskrit, it is a matter of pleasure that Poet Dr. Harekrishna Meher uses words with grammatical propriety. The flow of rhythm lying in the words of these lyrics reminds us of the grace of Oriya language. The treasure of Goddess of Learning will certainly be rich with this gīti-kāvya.
= = = = = = = =  


REFERENCES : 

1. Chitre niveśya parikalpita-sattva-yogā / (Śākuntalam, 2/9).  

2. For details, see my book “Śāstrālochanam”, pp. 66-73.  
    (Bhāratīya-Samskriti-NikasheŚakuntalāyā Madana-lekhasya Kāñchanatvam)   
    Akshayavata Prakashan, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh.

3. For more details, see my work “Śāstrālochanam”, pp. 27-36.  

    (Svātantryottaram Gīti-kāvyam : Vāńmaya-Viśleshaņam).  

4. All these books have been published by
    Kaushambi Prakashan, Daraganj, Allahabad. Uttar Pradesh.

5. “Mātrigītikāñjalih” of Harekrishna Meher has been published by
     Kalahandi Lekhak Kala Parishad, Bhawanipatna, Orissa, India,1997.  


* * * * * * * * * * * * 


[About Prof. Abhiraja Rajendra Mishra] 
In Modern Sanskrit Literature, Dr. Abhiraja Rajendra Mishra is an eminent poet, a lyricist, a deep-delved scholar, researcher, translator, playwright and critic. Former Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit in Himachal Pradesh University of Shimla, Visiting Professor to University of Indonesia and Ex-Vice-Chancellor of Sampurnananda Sanskrit University of Varanasi, Popularly known as “Triveņī-Kavi” hailing from Allahabad, this renowned personality for his original literary contributions has been honoured with Sahitya Akademi Award, Rashtrapati Award, Valmiki Samman, Vachaspati Samman and other several provincial awards. A versatile genius, creative and prolific writer, he has authored many books in Sanskrit, Hindi, English and Bhojpuri languages.

Some of his main literary works are :
Ikshugandha, Aranyani, Abhiraja-Yasobhushanam, Dhara-Mandaviyam, 
Janaki-Jivanam, Madhuparni, Samskrit Sahitya Mein Anyokti, Sapta-Dhara,
Poetry and Poetics, Abhiraja-Saptasati, Abhiraja-Sahasrakam, Mridvika, 
Natya-Panchagavyam, Natya-Panchamritam, Vag-Vadhuti, Srutimbhara, 
Bali-Dvipe Bharatiya Samskritih, Vimsa-Satabdi-Samskrita-Kavyamritam (Ed.), 
Sejarah Kesusatraan Sanskerta (History of Sanskrit in Bahasa Indonesia). 
Suvarna-Dvipiya Rama-Katha, Samskrita-Satakam.  

After retirement from Sampurnanada Sanskrit University of Varanasi, now resides at : 
Teachers’ Colony, Lower Summer Hill,  Near Senior Secondary School,  
Shimla-171005, Himachal Pradesh, India.  
Phone: 0177-6534607,  Mobile : + 91- 94181-76968. 
* * * 
(Later on, this article has been published in "SRADDHA",  
Sanskrit Research Journal, Volume-II, 2011, 
Post-Graduate Department of Sanskrit, Gangadhar Meher Autonomous College, 
Sambalpur, Odisha)
*
For Some Comments on "Matrigitikanjalih", please see :
http://hkmeher.blogspot.com/2008/03/modern-sanskrit-literature.html 
* * *